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In my opinion, the Industrial Revolution did not start in France because of the political and social situation in that country. France had a political and social system that was rather hide-bound and aristocratic. It had an absolute monarchy where England (where the Industrial Revolution did start) had a much more free and open society.
Because France's society was dominated by an aristocracy, there was not a lot of room for innovation and the development of new ways. There was not the sort of large, relatively well-off merchant and middle class that was needed. Peasants were tied to the land and were not available to come work in factories.
So, because France's society was more old-fashioned, it was not able to be at the leading edge of change.
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