Why did the 1848–1849 German rebellions fail?

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The German Rebellions of 1848/1849 were rooted in popular discontent with German autocratic rule. Multiple rebellions erupted across the states within the German Confederation as people sought to unify the states under pan-Germanism and create more democratic structures of governance. Within the rebellions existed distinct liberal, middle-class factions, as well as more radical, working-class factions. While the groups originally coalesced together in a popular front, the two classes fell apart as it became increasingly clear that most of those in the liberal, middle-class faction were not interested in supporting the radical demands of the working-class, who sought to radically transform society in order to improve their material conditions. When this split occurred, the German aristocracy quickly defeated the rebellion through divide-and-conquer tactics.

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