woman in repose floating through the air surrounded by ghosts

Because I could not stop for Death—

by Emily Dickinson
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Why couldn't the speaker stop for Death?

The poem implies the speaker could not stop for Death because she has been too busy with the business of being alive.

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The speaker could not stop for Death because she has been too busy living and experiencing life. She mentions that, when Death "kindly" collects her in his carriage, she opts to put aside her labor and leisure, the two activities which take up most people's lives, in order to show...

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The speaker could not stop for Death because she has been too busy living and experiencing life. She mentions that, when Death "kindly" collects her in his carriage, she opts to put aside her labor and leisure, the two activities which take up most people's lives, in order to show respect and resignation towards Death. Once Death arrives, both work and play are no longer options, and the speaker accepts this fate. Now while in the carriage, accompanied by Immortality, all the speaker can do is appreciate the slow-going scenery before her, representing childhood, adulthood, and death. Slowly heading towards "Eternity," contemplation replaces work and play, a contrast to the fast-paced, active life most people lead.

It must be remembered that this poem is also allegorical, representing the end of life. The speaker's inability to stop for Death is meant to reflect the common attitude towards death in general: most people do not think about their inevitable demise, nor do they want to die. Precious few people would willingly stop for death, but in the end, death stops for everyone, since everyone's time alive is limited. This notion makes Dickinson's personification of Death appear both courteous and ominous.

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The speaker of the poem has no fear of death. That's what she means when she says that she couldn't stop for it. And it's why the figure of Death—personified as the driver of a carriage—has to stop for her. This highlights the fact that it is ultimately Death that chooses when we leave this world behind, not ourselves. On this reading, even someone who takes their own life is fated to do so.

The figure of Death takes the speaker on a smooth and pleasant journey from this world into the next, from the here and now into the realm of the eternal. The longer the poem goes on, the more ethereal the speaker becomes. Slowly but surely, she's turning into a spirit as Death's carriage takes her across the threshold into eternity.

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I think many of us have the same attitude about dying. We know we are going to have to die someday, but right now isn't a good time because we have so many important things to do. Or at least we think they are important. But death comes when it will come whether we are ready for it or not. I think this is what the speaker means when she says she could not stop for Death. But death knew better than she did. He was kind enough to stop for her because he knew she was tired and needed the rest. She found that the things she thought were so important were not really important, and she found that the experience was very pleasant and that she had all the time in the world because she was immortal. The poem sounds as if it had been written by someone who had had a near death experience and as a result had a new perspective on death. People like this poem because it is comforting without being preachy. We don't have to worry about death because Death will take care of us in a kindly manner when the time comes.

Leo Tolstoy's moving novelette The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886) ends on a note very similar to Emily Dickinson's poem. Ivan Ilyich discovers in his last moments that there is nothing to fear of death.

He sought his former accustomed fear of death and did not find it. "Where is it? What death?" There was no fear because there was no death. In place of death there was light. "So that's what it is!" he suddenly exclaimed aloud. "What joy!"

 
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