Why is the story called "A Rose for Emily"  even though there are no roses?

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Roses need not be literally spoken of to have power.  Think of roses and their various roles in human life.  Roses are often present at weddings, a promise of love despite hardship, the combination of pain and beauty. 

However, roses because of their strong odor, are also used in funeral homes to cover the stench of decay.  In Faulkner's day as well, older ladies, those of the late 1800s, favored rose water parfumes as a means of hiding bodily odor (no deodorants then, you know.)  Emily tries hard to be something she is not...young, engaging, marriageable. 

The covering of stench could be applied to a variety of characters:  the town in its neglect of one of its own, Emily in covering the death of her lover, the dead flowers symbolic of Homer's apparently neglected promise. 

Additionally, it has been traditional for brides and lovers to press and preserve roses.  The rose of the title then, may symbolize Emily's stagnant dreams for a life with Homer.

Or, one could view the rose as the narrator's offer of friendship, extended too late.  Like a clipped rose, life itself is short and once it is gone, the rose can never be restored to its previous glory. 

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An intriguing question. Well, first of all, remember that this is not strictly the case. The word "rose" appears several times in the story, especially in the final section, with "rose-shaded lights." However, the main reason this is the title is that what Miss Emily wants above all else is to be wooed. She wants love to be freely given to her, and when it is not, she kills it, taking the "rose" (her loved one) by violence, and killing it.

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The rose is symbolic...a sort of nod in her direction for her success as an aristocratic representative, the last of her kind, and the conquerer of Homer Baron.

The rose is also symbolic of love and of her life.  It was beautiful, soft, protected, with a few thorns.  Her southern heritage enveloped her and protected her in the dullness of the rules that she followed almost without question.  Her father also protected her from marriage to unsuitable men, and then from taxes as he died leaving her alone with Toby.

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