It is the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere that protect people from the damaging effects of solar weather. An example of solar weather that we are protected from and astronauts are not is solar flares.
The atmosphere reduces the amount of solar radiation that penetrates through it. It also burns up meteors as they enter the atmosphere. In addition, the atmosphere keeps the warm air inside keeping the Earth at just the right temperature, allowing us to survive.
The magnetosphere is what surrounds the magnetic field of the Earth. It keeps particles carried by solar wind from entering the atmosphere and colliding into Earth.
Remember that we really are not completely safe from space or solar weather. The atmosphere and magnetosphere protect us but it still possible for objects like meteors to pass through. Radiation from the sun is also still very dangerous.