Who were these quotes describing;
1."a figure armed at a point, exactly, Cap-a-pe"
2."that great baby you see there is not yet out of his swaddling-clouts."
3. "a bosom black as death! O limed soul, that, struggling to be free, art more engaged."
I am not sure if you realize this, but these three quotes are describing three different characters in the play. I will give you an answer to your inquiry as follows:
The first quote is from Act 1 when Horatio and Hamlet are talking about the ghost of King Hamlet that has appeared three times before. Hamlet is asking questions about what the ghost is wearing, and Horatio responds that he is wearing his military regalia, implying that he is not wearing the clothes he was buried in.
The second quote is from Act 2 when Hamlet is making fun of Polonius as part of his act of madness. He is telling Rosencrantz and Guildenstern that Polonius is walking like a baby in a diaper, perhaps making fun of his gait.
The third quote comes from Act 3. It is Claudius describing himself as he tries to confess his guilt, and yet here he realizes that while is soul is struggling to be free from his sins, the soul is actually even MORE guilty because he doesn't actually have any genuine remorse for his crimes and has no intention of giving up all he has gained, namely the throne and Gertrude.