This really depends on what perspective you are coming at this from. There's this guy called Bart Ehrman who has written a bunch on what he thinks is the "historical Jesus." He has read all the Gospels (and other works that claim to be about Jesus) and tried to use them to figure out exactly the question you ask.
He concludes that Jesus was an "apocalyptic Jew" who was coming to warn people to repent because the end of time was very near (like within people's life times back then). He also concludes that Jesus did not see himself as the literal son of God. So it's pretty interesting, but very opposed to the views of most religious Christians.
I'd look up Ehrman if that sounds like the stuff you need.