Practically everyone in the entire world was affected by the Cold War. While the US “won” the conflict, there were many other “outcomes” that affected people around the world in very different ways.
Americans were affected by the Cold War in different ways. Some Americans experienced oppression during the Cold War (particularly in the first decade or two of the conflict) because they held beliefs that seemed too communistic to people in authority. Many Americans experienced fear during the Cold War. They worried that a real war would erupt between the US and the USSR. They worried that such a war would lead to nuclear exchanges and even to the destruction of most of the United States.
People in countries other than the US and the USSR were affected by the Cold War. Black people in South Africa, for example, were affected because the US and its allies supported the South African apartheid regime. The regime was anti-communist and in a strategically important place so the West supported it even though it was based on racial injustice. Some people in the Marshall Islands were affected by the Cold War as the US moved them off of their home islands so those islands could be used as nuclear testing sites. People in Japan benefited from the Cold War as the US protected that country and helped it to grow economically so that it would be a strong ally for the US. There are many other possible answers as to how people were affected by the Cold War.
The overall outcome of the Cold War was that communism fell and the West won.