Who are the Three Daughters of China? Jung Chang, Er-Hong, and who?

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mrshh eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Jung Chang's grandmother, Yu-fang, was the first in the generation of three daughters.  This woman experienced severe hardship and turmoil at an early age.  When she was two, her feet were bound to keep them small in size.  Then as a young woman, Yu-fang was sold to the police chief of the large Chinese city of Beijing to be his concubine.  She became pregnant and gave birth to a daughter, Bao Qin.  Bao Qin was the second generation of the women in this story.  Her name was chosen by her biological father, though she was later called De-Hong.  Yu-fang fled with her baby daughter to escape from the man she served as a concubine to.  She later married a doctor, and she became his dearly loved wife.

De-hong/Bao Qin was the second of the three daughters.  She became involved with the Communist Party.  She met an official in the party and they married.  Then she gave birth to her oldest daughter, Jung Chang.  

Jung Chang was the third in the generation of daughters.  She saw a darker side of Communism and eventually left to live in England.  She was also called Er-Hong.

In conclusion, the daughters were Yu-fang, Bao Qin/De-Hong, and Jung Chang/Er-Hong.

jbwrites | Student

The Three Daughters of China are referenced in the book Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China written by Jung Chang and originally published in 1991.  The author, Jung Chang, is one of the three daughters of China.  The other two daughters are Chang's mother and grandmother, Bao Qin/De-hong, and Yu-fang, respectively.  

della2016 | Student

The third daughter was named Cixi in Three Daughters of China.


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