What you are describing here is the disagreement between the nationalist position on the Constitution and the states' rights position. Nationalists argue that the constitution was a compact between the people of the US. They say this is why the Constitution starts out "We the People" and not "We the States." States' rights people argued that the Constitution was a compact between the states. They point out, for example, that it was the states that ratified the Constitution, not the people.
Of the choices you give, Clay and Calhoun are definitely not right. They (especially Calhoun) were advocates of states' rights. Calhoun was behind the nullification crisis. But both Daniel Webster and John Quincy Adams were Federalists. Therefore, they both would have believed in the nationalist position.