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Aristotle a greek philospher,taught that the Earth was in the center of the Universe. He thus taught that the Sun, the Moon, and the planets thus orbited the Earth. This is the "geocentric theory." Aristotle set forth this theory in a book called, "On the Heavens."However a man named Aristarchus of Samos taught the sun was in the center.He was the first to propose it. The theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy(a philosopher who also went for aristotles theory) were adopted by the Roman Catholic Church, which played an important role in presenting these theories to the Europeans.Sooner a man named Copernicus made the Heliocentric theory.The theory that the earth and planets revolve around the sun. Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) lived in Italy. He used the newly-invented telescope to make his own observations. He studied mountains and craters on the Earth's moon, the phases of Venus, and the moons of Jupiter. Particularly he noted that Venus at times appears to be a crescent, just as the Earth's moon does. All of these findings supported Copernicus' heliocentric theory. Galileo wrote about his observations and thus angered the Roman Catholic Church. The Church eventually placed him under house arrest. The Inquisition was the tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church at this time. The Inquisition made Galileo kneel before them and confess that the heliocentric theory was false. Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) lived in England. Newton derived the law of gravitation between two masses. Since the Sun was the most massive object in the planetary system, all of the planets would naturally be attracted to it and revolve around it, in the same manner as the Moon revolves around the Earth. Newton eventually wrote about gravitation and the heliocentric theory in Principia Mathematica in 1687, at the prompting of another famous astronomer, Edmund Halley (1656-1742) . Halley used Newton's equations to predict that a comet seen in 1682 would return in 1758. The return of Halley's comet gave final proof to the heliocentric theory. In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church finally repealed the ruling of the Inquisition against Galileo. The Church gave a pardon to Galileo and admitted that the heliocentric theory was correct. This pardon came 350 years after Galileo's death.
So really alot contributed.
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