Who proposes the idea of marriage between Romeo and Juliet?

Juliet is the one who proposes the idea of marriage to Romeo.

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It is notable that it is Juliet who first proposes the idea of marriage. Though still very young, even she knows that a woman in her position needs to protect herself, needs the security and respectability that marriage can bring.

Deep in her heart, Juliet may believe that Romeo's intentions are honorable. But she still needs an outward sign that Romeo's serious. Raising the prospect of marriage is very useful in this regard. It can be seen as almost a test of Romeo's intentions towards her, a way of making sure that Romeo really means what he says.

If Romeo is as deeply enamored of Juliet as he says he is, then Juliet is certain that he will have no problem with making their relationship official by agreeing to marry her. If Romeo's intentions are genuine, if he doesn't regard Juliet as just another infatuation, then he will have no hesitation in sending word the following day that he is ready to marry her:

If that thy bent of love be honorable,

Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow. (II, ii, 143–44)

If he should do so, then that will put their relationship on a much stronger footing. Though it will still be a deeply intense, passionate romance, it will also have the firm foundation of a commitment to engage in the sacrament of holy matrimony.

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Juliet says that if Romeo swears his love to her, she will believe it, but she also notes that words are unreliable, stating,

Yet if thou swear'st
Thou mayst prove false.
When Romeo swears by the moon that he loves her wholly, she tells him not to do that, because the moon is "inconstant." Juliet wants more than words to prove Romeo loves her truly. She says to him,
Well, do not swear. Although I joy in thee,
I have no joy of this contract tonight.
It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden,
Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be.
When Romeo, somewhat desperate because Juliet's nurse is calling her, asks what she wants and what he can do, Juliet tells him that he can back up his beautiful words with deeds and marry her. She is the one, therefore, who proposes marriage. She also lays out a very concrete plan for Romeo to follow that will turn words into reality:
If that thy bent of love be honorable,
Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow,
By one that I'll procure to come to thee,
Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite.
She wants specifics of where and when the marriage will be performed. This is the only way Juliet will trust in Romeo's "love."
It's not surprising that Juliet proposes that they marry. She is the more practical of the two, less given to flights of impulse and fancy. It also makes sense that the female in that society would be more focused on marriage and less on love or lust. Juliet knows that getting involved with Romeo on the basis of fleeting verbal promises could easily leave her pregnant, deserted, and disgraced, her life in ruins. She has a strong incentive to insist that Romeo put his money where his mouth is. Romeo, in turn, is so head over heels that all he needs is the word from Juliet and he is relentlessly determined to get them married.
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This is a really interesting part of Act II in Romeo and Juliet. The reader sees prior that Romeo has a predisposition to fall in love quickly and furiously, as seen in his very dramatic behavior after his falling out with Rosaline. Up to this point, a case could be made for Romeo simply being in lust with Juliet instead of actual love; the two haven't known each other long at all - only a few moments actually. It's reasonable to question both of their motives, but especially Romeo's based on his prior behavior. However, then the idea of marriage comes up the very evening they meet by Juliet: 

Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed. If that thy bent of love be honorable, Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow, By one that I’ll procure to come to thee, Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite, And all my fortunes at thy foot I’ll lay And follow thee my lord throughout the world.

This is somewhat surprising, because they've just met. It's also shocking because it's Juliet who suggests this. Even today, society dictates that the man propose marriage. In Shakespeare's time, it's even more surprising that Juliet is the one who proposes this idea. 

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Juliet proposes the idea of marriage to Romeo on the very night that they meet.  In Act 2, scene 2 (otherwise known as the balcony scene), Juliet becomes so obsessed over the idea that she must be sure that Romeo is truly in love with her that she tells him that if he really loves her and wants to be with her, then he must marry her when she says,

     "Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed.
      If that thy bent of love be honourable,
      Thy purpose marriage, send me word to-morrow, 
      By one that I'll procure to come to thee,
      Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite;"  (A. 2, s. 2, lines 148-152)

On the following day, Romeo does, in fact , give the Nurse information about when the marriage will take place.

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