Who or what is Providence in chapter 32 of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?

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Providence, as the name suggests, simply refers to what God provides, events in life and their outcomes that are divinely pre-ordained. Whatever happens in life—good, bad, or indifferent—it's because God wanted it that way, and there's absolutely nothing that mere mortals such as ourselves can do about it.

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Providence, as the name suggests, simply refers to what God provides, events in life and their outcomes that are divinely pre-ordained. Whatever happens in life—good, bad, or indifferent—it's because God wanted it that way, and there's absolutely nothing that mere mortals such as ourselves can do about it.

In the context of chapter 32 of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Huck believes that Providence has been very good to him thus far, allowing him to spin Mrs. Phelps a tall story about how he came to wind up on her farm. But he thinks that Providence is running out on him just when he needs it the most. The sudden realization hits him that he can't keep up the pretense for much longer; he's bound to be tumbled sooner or later.

But fortunately for Huck, he's very much mistaken. For Providence continues to stick by him as Mrs. Phelps introduces Huck to her husband as Tom Sawyer, their nephew. Huck is mightily relieved, because now he can easily pretend to be his old pal. He doesn't have to continue spinning an increasingly implausible yarn; he can simply tell the Phelpses everything he knows about the Sawyer family. And of course, he knows a lot.

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Providence is just another way of saying "God."  In the chapter you mention, you can see that this makes sense.  We are told that Huck trusts in Providence to put the right words in his mouth when he needs them.  He says that he has found that Providence will do that if he just lets it.

The word does not necessarily have to refer to God.  It can also just be fate or nature.  But the idea is that it is someone who is watching out for you -- something supernatural.  So something is putting the right words in his mouth -- God or something else supernatural that cares about Huck.

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