The seven deadly sins are as follows: (1) wrath, (2) greed, (3) sloth, (4) pride, (5) lust, (6) envy, (7) gluttony.
The origin of the seven deadly sins is not known perfectly. This should not surprise us, since anything old is lost to a certain degree. However, we can make a few points.
First, if you look at the bible, there are many lists of sins. For example, Proverbs 6:16-19 has seven sin and if we look at places in the New Testament like Galatians 5:19-21, we read of another list of sins. So, we can say that lists of vices was common in the bible. This is probably the precedent for the seven deadly sins.
Second, some scholars believe that this list started with a monk by the name of Evagrius Ponticus. We cannot be certain of this point, since his list is slightly different.
Third, what we do know is that by the middle ages, these seven sins were known. And as time went on, these seven deadly sins became even more well known.