Who killed Julius Caesar?
The Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 B.C.-44 B.C.) died of the wounds inflicted by a number of Roman senators, most notably his friends Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longines. Several seemingly minor incidents led to the conspiracy by as many as 60 senators to kill Caesar. Several senators felt slighted when Caesar refused to stand before them on one occasion (Caesar may have been suffering from an illness--possibly diarrhea--that kept him from standing, or it may have been intentional); and Caesar later insulted them by refusing to place a crown upon his head. Brutus and his brother-in-law Cassius apparently initiated secret discussions with other senators in their own homes. They eventually decided to kill Caesar in the Senate chambers where the emperor would be alone and so that his assailants "could hide their daggers beneath their togas."
Caesar's comrade, Mark Antony, had heard rumors of the plot, and he rushed to intercede, but he was too late. When Caesar entered the Senate, he was first met by Tillius Cimber, who "presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother." As other Senators began to surround Caesar, sensing that something was amiss,
"waved him away, but Cimber grabbed Caesar's shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic. Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). At the same time, (Servilius) Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother!" in Greek ("adelphe, boethei!"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times. According to Suetonius, a physician who performed the autopsy on Caesar later established that only one wound (the second one to his chest) had been fatal. Suetonius' autopsy report (the first recorded post-mortem report in history) describes that Caesar's death was mostly attributed to blood loss from the multiple stab wounds.
It is uncertain which Senator delivered the fatal stab to Caesar's chest; and, despite William Shakespeare's famed last words of Caesar--"Et tu, Brute?"--it is unlikely that Caesar spoke to anyone as he lay dying on the Senate floor.
On March 14, 44 BCE, in the city of Rome, Italy, Gaius Julius Caesar was assassinated by a number of his fellow Roman noblemen. The Roman biographer Suetonius, in his Life of Julius Caesar (section 82), tells us that more than 60 men participated in the conspiracy, but that the conspiracy was led by Gaius Cassius, Marcus Brutus, and Decimus Brutus. Suetonius mentions Tillius Cimber as the first to grab Caesar, but says that "one of the Cascas" was the first to stab him; and, of course, Suetonius also notes the famous remark that Caesar made after Marcus Brutus stabbed him, although Suetonius reports that Caesar said to Brutus in Greek, "And you, my child" (compare Shakespeare's "Et tu, Brute"; "you, too, Brutus"). Suetonius says that 23 wounds were inflicted upon Caesar.
The Greek biographer Plutarch, in his Life of Caesar, gives bascially the same story as Suetonius does, although he mentions only one Casca.