The origins of resumes came from feudal England. It was created by a Lord or Head of a local guild as a letter of introduction for a traveler visiting distant areas of the kingdom. The resume would introduce the person and provide them with an opening to society.
The Curriculum Vitae literally means "course of one's life" in Latin. "It comes from the Romans who invaded old Brittan in 54 B.C. and after the breakup of the Roman Empire and independence of Brittain, was brought into vocabulary as an individual's introduction."
Before we try to determine who invented the concept of resume and curriculum vitae (CV), we need to be clear by what we mean by this concept. Please note that we are talking about the common concept behind these two terms and not about the origin of these terms themselves.
The common concept behind these two terms is to divide a job application in two parts - a covering letter and a separate write-up on ones personal details including education, experience and other information relevant for judging the suitability of applicant for the job applied. Resume and CV both refer to this kind of write-up containing personal information for judging suitability for employment or other similar purposes.
There is no single person or event that can be identified as the inventor of this concept. This is a concept which developed gradually as job seekers started to find ways of making their job application more effective and big companies started to find ways of making the process of screening candidates for jobs more efficient and effective. For both these purposes a structure description of personal information was found to be very effective. So, job seekers started to use it for making their job application more effective. Also many employers started to insist on prospective job seekers giving information on their prescribed format. Initially these documents for application were called by different names, including simple "application form". However, over a period the names resume and CV became more popular than others.