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The first thing that you need to remember is that only Congress can determine the amount of military spending in any given year. They are the ones who ultimately pass the bills that apporpriate money for the military.
However, it is probably more accurate to say that it was Pres. Johnson who increased the military spending. It was he who made the budget requests for that much money. Congress had the ultimate authority, but Johnson was the one who requested that amount. At that time, Congress was typically just going along with what the President requested. Therefore, you would probably say that Johnson was more responsible than Congress.
In our country, Congress determines our spending levels. When the Constitution was written, each branch of government was given different jobs to do. When it comes to determining spending levels, Congress has the final say. Thus, the answer to your question is that Congress increased military spending to close to $30 billion in 1968.
It should be noted, however, that President Johnson wanted Congress to increase our military spending in Vietnam. President Johnson had increased our involvement in the Vietnam War significantly. More troops were going to Vietnam and more attacks were occurring. This required a greater monetary commitment. Therefore, President Johnson asked Congress to increase military spending. While Congress didn’t have to agree to this request, it did grant the increase. President Johnson had been saying that we were close to willing the Vietnam War, and Congress increased funding in the hope that we would win the war.
It would have to be congress. The job of the Legislative Branch is to determine military spending. Therefore, it may have been Johnson's decision, but it was Congress's ultimate descision.
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