Who are the founding fathers of the neurobiological and the sociocultural appraoches to psychology?

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amarang9 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Sociocultural. One of the fathers of sociocultural approach to psychology would be Augusta Comte. He is often called the founder of sociology and his philosophy of positivism, which is the theory that knowledge must be based on sense experience, was the first step in treating sociology as a science in the same was as the 'hard sciences.' Other founding fathers of sociocultural psychology would include philosophers of history such as Karl Marx/Engels. This field branches out, so founders came from studies about how different societal elements affect psychology: economics, technology, race, gender, and so on.

Neurobiological. Sigmund Freud is certainly one of the, or maybe THE, founder of modern psychology: he was a neurologist who dealt with psychoanalysis. And his ideas deal with both neurology and culture: how desires and motivations in the conscious/unconscious interact with the external world. Although, I've also read that Wilhelm Wundt and William James are the fathers of psychology. I've read that the origins of neuropsychology are often associated with experimental psychology, and that would make Wundt one of the more important founders.

Neurobiology technically dates back Pierre Calbanis or even to Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Hippocrates; and experimental psychology to Alhazen.

These fields are both integrative (interdisciplinary) so you could argue that the founders are people from many different disciplines: philosophy, psychology, physiology, history. Some others, if not founders, they are influences to these subjects: Charles Darwin, Christian von Eherenfels, Immanuel Kant, Goethe, Descartes, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, John B. Watson, Abraham Maslow, Margaret Meade, and B.F. Skinner. But this only scratches the surface. We're talking about the study of human behavior so you can imagine how complex and extensive a list of contributors could be.