In Animal Farm, who does Old Major represent in the real life revolution?

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Animal Farm by George Orwell is better understood with some knowledge of the history of Communism and the Russian Revolution (1917) although, it can be enjoyed without any such awareness of its historical significance. Although the animals do represent recognizable characters from the Revolution, such as Joseph Stalin (Napoleon) and Leon Trotsky (Snowball), Orwell felt disillusioned about how socialist ideals are so easily corrupted and about how, as he expresses in Animal Farm, "some (animals) are more equal than others."

Old Major, the pig who actually starts the rebellion with his proud speech, his belief that humans are "the only real enemy we have" and the song Beasts of England, is seen as a combination of Karl Marx, the founder of Communism and Vladimir Lenin, the first president of the USSR. It is Old Major who introduces the theories and ideals on which the rebellion is based and it is his intention to simplify it suitably so that the animals can understand much as Lenin was the main facilitator or catalyst in the start of the Russian Revolution. 

As Karl Marx stood for the rights of the people, so Old Major intended to institute a philosophy that would free the animals from human tyranny, creating an equal and fair system with no class structure. Old Major dies before he can see his dreams become reality much as Karl Marx died before his theories could change the face of history. 

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Old Major represents Vladimir Lenin.  Old Major is the source of the new world order of Animalism.  He is the individual who gives voice to the philosophy that will guide the animals on the farm.  His first word to the animals is "Comrade," representing a direct link to Lenin's...

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As we know that Animal Farm is an allegorical novel by George Orwell based upon the conditions prevailed in the French society after the Bolshevik Revolution under the communist regime of Joseph Stalin, who is characterisd as the Berkshire boar, Napoleon, in the novel. Before the revolution, Old Major acts as the major role encouraging the animals about a utopian society where the animals could live in freedom and happiness. He also teaches the concepts n doctrines of Animalism and taught the animals of the song 'Beasts of England'England' in the light of his teachings. Orwell combines the character of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin into Old Major just as these two leaders helped in evoking the spirits of socialism in the peoples mind prior to the French revolution. And also, after the death of Old Major, his skull was put up for display just as the embalmed body of Lenin was displayed. These are some of the connections shown by Orwell between the great inspiring leaders and of his character, Old Major in the Animal Farm.