The name of the man you are looking for is Alphonse Bertillon. Bertillon was a French policeman and criminologist who was born in 1853. He is credited with creating the first scientific way of identifying criminals.
Bertillon's method involved what can be called anthropometry. He devised a system that took 11 measurements of various parts of the body and used those (along with things like hair and eye color) to create a way of identifying people. Police could take these measurements and then use them to look through their files to determine whether a person had previously committed a crime.
Bertillon's method was widely used until a better method of identification -- fingerprints -- was found. Because he invented the first method of scientifically describing and identifying people, Bertillon is known as the father of criminal detection and anthropometry.