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Cicero was born in 106 B.C. His family lived in Rome in a town called Arpinum. Once old enough to pursue studies, Cicero traveled to Rome in order to study law, philosophy, and literature. Cicero first became famous given he was able to able to defend Sextus Roscius of Ameria against charges of killing a parent (parricide).

Soon after tiring of law, Cicero returned to his study of philosophy, this time in Athens. Once in Athens, Cicero began to divert from the traditional philosophical ideologies. By doing so, he joined with the New Academy (philosophers who tended to be skeptical of traditional thought).

As a writer, Cicero's main texts focused upon religion, oratorical theory, law and rhetoric. His main ideology was the "fact" that men, given their ability to be rational, must adhere to natural law based upon the fact that their is a "natural order to the universe."