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Irony is the opposite of what is expected (the police station is robbed). Synecdoche is when a part of an object, person, place is used to describe the whole. When you ask your friends for a hand, you don't really want their hand- you want what's attached to it. The hand is a part of the whole person you want to help you.
Metonymy is similar and often confused for synecdoche, but is more metaphorical. Metonymy is a commonly associated attribute used to describe a person, place, thing.
- The crown today wished the prince well in his marriage.
Clearly the crown can't talk. Who's associated with the crown? The Queen.
A metaphor is a comparison between two things without using like or as. The night was smooth velvet. Or my favorite, The boy was not a bright crayon. The night isn't velvet and the boy can't be a crayon, but the metaphor compares the two with similar (or dissimilar) attributes.
A bildunsroman describes a work that discusses a characters journey. Huck Finn is a bildunsroman because it not only follows his journey down the Mississippi, but also shows his personal growth as a result of the journey.
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