While it might be common sense that climates near the poles are cold and climates near the equator are hot. But at the equator you would find some climates are hot and _____ and some are hot and ______.From the poles to the equator, you can find some pretty amazing extremes. In the _________ of Moab, there is very little precipitation and that is determined by a few factors.If there is a mountain range in the path of the wind (as we discussed in class with Orographic Lifting) the wind will rise and cool. This will cause __________ on the _____________________ side of the mountain.The mountains prevent the rain from falling on the ______________ side so it is much drier and that is why deserts are often found there.Precipitation is only one component of Climate, the other is _____________________.More energy is absorbed at the _________ which makes it hot. But the Sun’s energy really heats up the ______________ which then warms up the air.Temperature and Climate can also be affected by how close an area is to a __________ _____________ of ________________.In places like Iceland the ______________ plays a huge part in heating up the land. The capital city of Reykjavik is at a latitude of ________ degrees North. But it has a mean annual temperature of +5 C but on the coast of ________________ at the same latitude, the mean temperature is -3 C.How can this be? It turns out the _______________ is bringing part of the Caribbean heat with it. The _____________ ___________ brings warmth along with it and a branch called Irminger current flows along the southern and western __________ making the air milder.What else can affect our global climate? Human activities like burning oil, __________, coal, and natural gas produce Greenhouse gases such as _____________ ___________.Greenhouse gases trap ____________________ radiation that would normally leave Earth’s atmosphere.Would a slight change in temperature really be such a bad thing? Increased temperatures melt _________ __________ which could flood many _____________ areas of the world. WEBSITE NOTES What is a biome? A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive __________ and ____________________ groups. Most terrestrial biomes are defined by the _______________ plant life. Go to the far right side of the webpage to find a GREY box with the names of biomes inside it. Click on ARCTIC TUNDRA. The tundra is very cold, ___________ , _____________ and covered with snow for much of the year. It can found in Alaska, ____________________, Greenland and ________________.Tundra cover one-_____________ of the earth’s surface!What is Permafrost?_____________________________________________________.Why are there NO trees above it? __________________________________________.What on Earth can survive here? Tundra plants include mosses, __________ and liverworts, plus ________________, sedges, and dwarf shrubs. These plants are food for animals like arctic hares and squirrels, caribou, lemmings and voles.Scroll back up to the top and click in BOREAL FORESTS-TAIGA inside the grey box in the top right corner. Where can we find them? Boreal forests are only found in the ____________________ hemisphere of Earth, mainly between latitudes 50° and _____° N. Due to the short growing season in the Taiga, ___________________ trees dominate because they don’t have to regrow their leaves and are better adapted for a colder climate. Scroll down to “Why so coniferous?” Conifers like _____________, Fir, Larch, _____________, and Hemlocks are well adapted for the Taiga.Conifers retain their ____________________ throughout the winter. These allow them to begin photosynthesis as soon as temperatures rise above freezing and also help to prevent _______ __________.Scroll Back up to the Top and then click on TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST. The scroll down to the section “What types of plants can you find there?” North Carolina is in a temperate deciduous forest or _________________ forest. You will find trees like ______________, Oak, Beech, Chestnut, _______________, and Hickory. Scroll back up to the TOP and then click on TROPICAL RAINFORESTS. Almost every rainforest you might visit has a temperature range of 93°F to ________°F. The average humidity is between _________ and 88 percent.Tropical Rainforests are found in a tropical ________ around the equator where annual temperature and precipitation are __________________.Today, about ___________________percent of the surface of Earth is covered in rainforests, but they produce about ______________ percent of Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis!Rainforests have more kinds of _______________than any other biome in the world and it has been estimated that about 25 % of the ________________________ we use come from plants in the rainforest.Scroll back up to the top grey box and Click on DESERT BIOME. Scroll down to “Desert Plant Adaptations” and “The drought resistors or moisture misers”. Scrubs and bushes in the desert have developed creative ways to work around the water shortage. Some have ____________________ ___________________ that spread just beneath the surface to absorb surface moisture from rain.Some desert plants have developed _______________leaves in order to prevent transpiration (______________________ through the leaves).Succulents, like _________________________, conserve water in their tissues and sharp _____________________ and irritating hairs prevent other organisms from obtaining their precious ____________________.

Earth has a great diversity of climate zones (6 in total), that all support different types of plants and animals. For example, tundra zones in Russia and Canada tends to be dry and frigid, hosting low-lying plants like lichens and moss. In contrast, desert biomes in places like the Sahara desert are often very hot. They are home to water-retaining succulents that are specially designed to hold onto precious water reserves.

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While it might be common sense that climates near the poles are cold and climates near the equator are hot. But at the equator you would find some climates are hot and dry and some are hot and moist or humid. From the poles to the equator, you can find...

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While it might be common sense that climates near the poles are cold and climates near the equator are hot. But at the equator you would find some climates are hot and dry and some are hot and moist or humid. From the poles to the equator, you can find some pretty amazing extremes. In the desert of Moab, there is very little precipitation. That is determined by a few factors. If there is a mountain range in the path of the wind (as we discussed in class with Orographic Lifting) the wind will rise and cool. This will cause orographic precipitation on the windward side of the mountain. The mountains prevent the rain from falling on the leeward side so it is much drier and that is why deserts are often found there. Precipitation is only one component of Climate, the other is temperature. More energy is absorbed at the equator which makes it hot. But the Sun’s energy really heats up the atmosphere which then warms up the air. Temperature and Climate can also be affected by how close an area is to a major body of water.

In places like Iceland the ocean plays a huge part in heating up the land. The capital city of Reykjavik is at a latitude of 64.1466 degrees North. But it has a mean annual temperature of +5 C but on the coast of Skelleftea, Sweden at the same latitude, the mean temperature is -3 C. How can this be? It turns out the Atlantic Ocean is bringing part of the Caribbean heat with it. The North Atlantic brings warmth along with it and a branch called Irminger current flows along the southern and western hemispheres making the air milder.

What else can affect our global climate? Human activities like burning oil, fossil fuel, coal, and natural gas produce Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gases trap infared radiation that would normally leave Earth’s atmosphere. Would a slight change in temperature really be such a bad thing? Increased temperatures melt icebergs which could flood many low-lying and coastal areas of the world.

What is a biome? A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plants and animal groups. Most terrestrial biomes are defined by the species of plant life.

ARCTIC TUNDRA. The tundra is very cold, dry, nutrient-poor, and covered with snow for much of the year. It can found in Alaska, Russia, Greenland and Canada .Tundra cover one fifth of the earth’s surface! What is Permafrost? A thick subsurface layer of cold, compact soil that remains frozen all year round, and occurs chiefly in polar regions of the world.

Why are there NO trees above it? The soil is frozen and cannot support the roots of larger trees.

What on Earth can survive here? Tundra plants include mosses, lichens and liverworts, plus cotton grass sedges, and dwarf shrubs. These plants are food for animals like arctic hares and squirrels, caribou, lemmings and voles.

BOREAL FORESTS. Where can we find them? Boreal forests are only found in the northern parts of the contiguous United States such as Canada and Alaska.

Northern hemisphere of Earth, mainly between latitudes 50° and 60 ° N. Due to the short growing season in the Taiga, deciduous trees dominate because they don’t have to regrow their leaves and are better adapted for a colder climate.

Conifers like Pines, Fir, Larch, Junipers, and Hemlocks are well adapted for the Taiga. Conifers retain their green foliage throughout the winter. These allow them to begin photosynthesis as soon as temperatures rise above freezing and also help to prevent interfering with metabolism.

TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST. “What types of plants can you find there?” North Carolina is in a temperate deciduous forest or deciduous forest. You will find trees like Maple, Oak, Beech, Chestnut, Birch, and Hickory.

TROPICAL RAINFORESTS. Almost every rainforest you might visit has a temperature range of 93°F to 70°F. The average humidity is between 77 and 88 percent. Tropical Rainforests are found in a tropical regions around the equator where annual temperature and precipitation are high. Today, about 6 percent of the surface of Earth is covered in rainforests, but they produce about 20 percent of Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis! Rainforests have more kinds of organisms than any other biome in the world and it has been estimated that about 25 % of the medicines we use come from plants in the rainforest.

DESERT BIOME. Scrubs and bushes in the desert have developed creative ways to work around the water shortage. Some have roots that spread just beneath the surface to absorb surface moisture from rain. Some desert plants have developed thick, waxy leaves in order to prevent transpiration (the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation through the leaves).Succulents, like cacti, conserve water in their tissues and sharp spines and irritating hairs prevent other organisms from obtaining their precious water.

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