One possible name for this idea is humanism, particularly secular humanism. I would argue, however, that humanism does not necessarily say that science is greater than God. It says, instead, that science and religion inhabit different spheres. When the church tries to speak on issues of science, it has no authority. However, this does not mean that science is greater than God.
Humanism does certainly hold that the church has no authority when it comes to matters of science. This is why, for example, humanists would hold that churches should not be able to dictate what is taught in biology class. This should be left to the scientists.
However, humanists do not necessarily deny the existence of God or say that science is greater than God. Some humanists believe in the idea that science can explain some things, and faith can explain others. In this view, science and faith are different things and neither is "greater" than the other.
The idea that science is greater than God was first propounded by the Bavarian Iluminati, secret cult which strongly opposed to the Church's belief that there is God.
The illuminati based most their arguments on the superiority of Science above God and concluded that God's command in Genesis that "let there be light, and there was light..." as impossible because scientifically, you cannot produce something out of nothing. In other words, something which matter must be produce from matter.
However, scientists were able to disproof this anology and come out a different view that science and God actually complement each other.
It is worthy to note that the Iluminati are responsible for what we come know as the New World Order.