Which two were most important to American industrialization in the late 1800s?
Here are the options:
new business structures and organization (ex: Rockefeller)
development of transportation networks
new inventions of the era
I already did plenty of research for all three, but I'm undecided.
All three were very important, but perhaps the first two choices would be the best. The process of consolidation, both vertical and horizontal, by business leaders like Rockefeller, Carnegie and many others was part of almost every major industry in the nation, from steel to beef to tobacco. The expansion of railroads, crucial transportation networks, were also crucial to industrial growth after the Civil War. The late nineteenth century witnessed a staggering explosion in technology, but many of the developments that were most important to the development of industry, including advances in steelmaking, textile production, and steam engines, were essentially improvements over technologies that were developed in the industrial revolution of the first part of the nineteenth century. This is not to downplay the importance of such advances as electricity and others, but of the key changes that facilitated the growth of heavy industry, the development of new business models as well as new transportation networks were probably the most important.