Which of these actions would have been legal under the Navigation Acts?
a. bring Dutch-made cloth to Virginia after stopping in London in a Massachusetts ship sailed by a crew that was 25 percent English, 50 percent Rhode Islander, 10 percent from Massachusetts, and 15 percent Dutch
b. send American-grown rice to France in an English ship operated by an entirely English crew
c. import rum from the Spanish Caribbean to New York after stopping in London in a Dutch ship with a crew that was 75 percent English and 25 percent Spanish
d. export American-made hats to England in a Virginia ship with a crew that was 20 percent French, 50 percent Virginian, and 30 percent from the British Caribbean colony in Barbados.
This is a difficult multiple choice question. Answer choice (A) would have been legal under the Navigation Acts, as the 1660 version of the laws stipulated that a ship must be English (i.e. licensed to trade by the Crown) as well as 75 percent British in crew (including British colonists) in order to conduct trade with the colonies. (B) would not have been legal, as American exports had to stop in English ports before trading with continental European nations. (C) is not legal for the reasons cited in choice (A); and (D) is illegal, or would have been in the eighteenth century anyway, because the Navigation Acts forebade the sale of most manufactured goods, including hats, from the colonies in England.