Cardiovascular disease, or heart disease, is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels, arteries and veins. While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, it is generally used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis. These diseases have similar causes, mechanisms, and treatments.
A large histological study called Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study (PDAY) found intimal lesions in aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries in youths aged 7 to 9.
Current studies indicate a link between cardiovascular disease and fast food. These studies include Ryan Mackey Memorial Research Institute, and Harvard University and Sydney Center for Cardiovascular Health. Many major fast food chains, such as MacDonalds, protested the methods used by these studies, and have responded by offering healthier menu item choices.