Enver Pasha was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, a nationalist group during the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Pasha and his colleagues wanted to reform Turkey by making it modern, while not losing its religious and cultural identity. One of the philosophies of the Young Turks was positivism. Auguste Comte was the author of this social theory. Essentially, what the theory states is that societies evolve in much the same way as biological species. The infant stage of society is one in which religion plays a crucial part. The final stage of positivism is when a society is based around enlightenment and science. The Pasha wanted to modernize Turkey and hoped to make it more secular in nature. Comte's work would be considered under the umbrella of Herbert Spencer's social Darwinist theory. The ideas of positivism and social Darwinism were important in the political decisions of Pasha and the Young Turks, including the practice of genocide on the Armenians.