Which phrase from the letter in act 1, scene 5 best summarizes Macbeth's relationship with his wife?

The phrase from Macbeth's letter to his wife that best summarizes their relationship comes at its closing when Macbeth gushes to her his exciting news about his weird encounter with the witches. He tells his wife that he couldn't wait to share the day's events, because she is his "partner in greatness," and he wants her to be fully aware of their common destiny. This shows Macbeth's respect and admiration of his wife, without whom he is largely impotent.

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Much of what Lady Macbeth reads aloud from her husband's letter is a summary of the witches' prophecy, but the following line offers insight into the relationship between the husband and wife:

This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that thou might’st not...

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Much of what Lady Macbeth reads aloud from her husband's letter is a summary of the witches' prophecy, but the following line offers insight into the relationship between the husband and wife:

This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that thou might’st not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of what greatness is promised thee.

This shows that Macbeth and his wife share a deep ambition to become king and queen of Scotland. He hastily writes this letter to her because he knows this news will thrill her as much as it thrills him. It reveals that she is the person he confides in as he does nobody else. He can hardly wait to share with her what he knows will overjoy her.

Macbeth feels close to his wife and wishes to give her pleasure at this point in the play. They will plan Duncan's murder together. He is greatly influenced by her words and her opinion of him. In fact, the letter shows how much he wishes to please her, and how much he wishes to provide her with the greatness she desires.

This love for and desire to impress his wife will become a weak point that she will use to goad him into murdering Duncan against his better judgment. Later, Macbeth will disconnect from his emotions and from his wife when becoming king turns out not to be what he had dreamed.

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At the top of act 1, scene 5, Lady Macbeth enters reading the letter written to her by her husband. In it, he informs her of the witches' prophecy and its fulfillment in Macbeth's new title as thane of Cawdor and his foretold destiny to be king. As Lady Macbeth tells us in this scene, Macbeth is "too full of the milk of human kindness" to take whatever drastic or bloody measures might be necessary to manipulate his way to the throne of Scotland. Because Macbeth has the awareness to realize that he lacks the ambition and killer instinct that defines his wife's character, he knows that he is essentially powerless without her beside him, directing him in their plot. At the end of the letter, Macbeth writes:

This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that thou might’st not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of what greatness is promised thee.

In other words, Macbeth is bursting with the pleasure of his sudden, strange, good fortune and wants to share it with his wife, the person closest to him and his "partner," without whom none of it would have been possible. He doesn't want his wife to miss out on the excitement and wants her to be fully clued in to what "greatness" lays before them. This line evidences Macbeth's sincere devotion to his wife, and while it is difficult to say whether the two of them actually loved each other, he clearly respects her as an equal, admires her cunning, and possibly fears her for her ruthlessness.

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At the beginning of act 1, scene 5, Lady Macbeth reads her husband's letter, which describes his encounter with the Three Witches and explains the prophecy that he will one day become king. The most telling phrase of the letter that reveals Macbeth's relationship with his wife is when he writes "my dearest partner of greatness." This phrase is significant because it reveals Macbeth's affection for his wife and the fact that he views her as his trusted partner. At this point in the play, Macbeth is compassionate and loving towards his wife. When he returns to Inverness, Lady Macbeth persuades her husband to assassinate King Duncan and even participates in the murder by placing the daggers back into Duncan's chamber.

Following the murder, Lady Macbeth begins to lose her mind, and Macbeth becomes a callous, bloodthirsty tyrant. He begins withholding information from his wife and no longer treats her as his trusted partner. As the play progresses, Macbeth loses affection for his wife, and she dies a lonely, tortured woman.

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I would choose the phrase that precedes the "partnership" descriptor.  Macbeth says that he wrote of the witches prediction because "This have I thought good to deliver thee."

This small phrase is very illuminating.  He is deferring to his wife.  He "thinks" he should make her informed of this news and that she'll be happy.  He doesn't say:  look, I have good  news.  He doesn't say "this is what we are going to do".  He says he thought it "good to deliver thee".  Macbeth is subservient in all aspects - to Duncan, to the witches, and to his wife.  This describes their marriage because, as later scenes will show, he does what she asks of him.  Hence all the trouble!

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In his letter to Lady Macbeth, Macbeth tells her that he has been awarded the title of Thane of Cawdor; furthermore, he shares the news of his encounter with the witches who have made exciting prophecies. He addresses his wife as "my dearest partner of greatness," indicating that this marriage is indeed a partnership; decisions are made together.  Despite this description, however, when Macbeth returns to Inverness, it is clear that the relationship between this husband and wife is not based on equality. She plays a powerful role in convincing a reluctant Macbeth to kill Duncan that night.  Later Macbeth will make a number of crucial decisions without consulting Lady Macbeth at all. Their marriage is deeply affected by the witches' prophecies and their subsequent rise to power.

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