Which is NOT a general characteristic of questionnaire survey used in quantitative research?
A) Questions are pre-determined but answers are not.
B) It allows primary data to be obtained.
C) It is an effective tool to obtain opinions, attitudes, and descriptions.
D) Questions allow numerical data to be obtained.
The correct answer to this question is Option C. This is the only option that does not accurately describe a survey that is to be used in quantitative research. Instead, it describes the sort of survey or questionnaire that would be used in qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that is meant to find data that can be put in number form. For example, quantitative research in the field of business might seek to correlate the amount of a product that a person buys with the number of advertisements for that product that the person has seen. Both of these variables could be put in numerical form. Since this is what quantitative research is seeking, Option D is clearly true.
Primary data is data that is collected first hand by the researcher. The term does not apply to data that the researcher finds in other people’s research. Clearly, surveys are meant to obtain primary data because they are not meant to scour through research that has previously been done. Therefore, Option B is correct.
Option A is correct for all research questionnaires. A researcher should never have determined answers before he or she asks the questions. That shows bias on the part of the researcher and will lead to biased results.
That leaves Option C. Option C is a good description of a survey used in qualitative research. Qualitative surveys ask open-ended questions that allow respondents to express themselves. This sort of survey is good for obtaining opinions and attitudes, but not so good for obtaining data that can be expressed numerically. Therefore, Option C is the right answer.
The correct answer is C. Quantitative research is generally used to quantify and generalize results to the population of interest while qualitative research focuses on understanding the underlying reasons and motivations for the topic being studied.