1. `HNO_3_(aq)` is aqueous nitric acid, which is named according to the IUPAC system for acids:
The ion name (nitrate) ends in -ate so the acid name ends in -ic.
2. `HNO_3_(s)` is anhydrous nitric acid. The IUPAC name for this compound is nitric acid using the system for naming acids. This can be confusing because it's common to call some anhydrous acids by their molecular name, for example HCl gas is often called hydrogen chloride. (IUPAC is the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which governs systematic naming of compounds.)
3. `SBr_4` is a molecular compound and not an acid so the covalent system with Greek prefixes is used to name it, giving it the name sulfur tetrabromide.
4. `NF_3` is also a molecular compound and not an acid, so the covalent system is used to name it, giving it the name nitrogen trifluoride.