The origin of Gothic literature can be traced back to the publishing of Horace Walpole's novel, The Castle of Otranto, in the 18th century. This type of literature is characterized by a dark, moody tone and a sense of rising suspense. The protagonist almost always experiences some type of confinement (as in a dungeon, or haunted house), as well as strange hallucinations which cause him or her to question reality. These experiences are almost always cast in a vengeful light, and it is often revealed that the protagonist is paying for a past crime.
Of the three Stephen King stories you mentioned in your question, the one that fits the themes of Gothic literature the best is 1408. In this story, the protagonist is a writer named Mike Enslin, known for writing about haunted places though he doesn't believe in ghosts himself. He decides to stay the night in the supposedly haunted room 1408 of the Hotel Dolphin in New York City, despite the protests of the hotel manager.
Taking place at night in an old building, the setting of the story is indeed Gothic in nature. In addition, Enslin finds himself trapped in this room and subject to increasingly violent visions, as in many famous Gothic novels. Finally, Enslin appears to pay for his skepticism of the supernatural. Though he escaped the haunted room, he is always frightened, and is no longer able to live a normal life.