Which of the following semantic markers is used to show that the speaker or writer is about to sum up all or part of their message?   a.) In other words b.) It amounts to this  c.) To summarize d.) All the above

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The correct answer here is D.  All of the phrases given here are semantic markers that can be used to indicate that a summary is about to be presented.

C is obviously correct.  Any time that a person says or writes “to summarize…” it is clear that a summary is coming.  But the others are correct too.  When you say “in other words,” we can tell that you are about to re-present an argument that has already been made.  This is a form of a summary.  When you say “It amounts to this…” you are also about to recapitulate the main points that you have already made.  Therefore, D is the best answer.

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