Which of the following are characteristic of the inflammatory response? (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY)
A. It can be initiated by the activation of the complement system.
B. It responds to injury with T and B lymphocytes.
C. It is a non-specific response to injury.
D. It is activated when first line of defense is inadequate.
Inflammation is an immune response which inflames (swells) a targeted area due to the detection of a foreign body. The inflammatory response can be due to allergic reactions, such as respiratory allergies or mosquito bites, or the result of a direct injury, such as a cut. The response typically floods the area with blood, in order to increase the ability of immune-response cells, and nutrients, to reach and interact with the target area; this also causes the swelling and redness. The itching related to inflammatory responses is a side effect of histamine; the commonly-advertised "antihistamines" available in over-the-counter products are in some senses a detriment to the immune system of the patient.
D is true; the inflammation response is activated when the first line of defense (the skin, or integument) is inadequate to prevent the agent from penetrating the tissue.
C is true; the inflammation response happens regardless of the nature of the inflammatory agent. Specific responses are initiated later, if necessary, when the pathogen has been identified.
B is not true; B and T lymphocytes are part of the specific immune response.
A is true; the inflammation response is directly related to the operation of the complement system.