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Which features form when magma cools beneath Earth’s surface? Identify all that apply: geysers, calderas, batholiths, volcanic necks, and dome mountains.

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Batholiths and volcanic necks are both formed when magma cools beneath the surface, although “beneath the surface” is relative in relation to a volcanic neck.

Batholiths are large lakes of magma that cool into igneous rock when they are separated far enough from a heat source. When the ground wears away, they are exposed. Volcanic necks are similar in that magma is trapped inside the neck of a volcano and cools to solidify. Sometimes these will cause violent explosions, but if not, they leave interesting landmarks on the Earth.

Geysers occurs when water is heated above magma pools and shoots up through the surface. Calderas are the remnants of volcanic explosions—a bowl crater left over after a volcano erupts. Dome mountains are formed when rising magma pushes up levels of sedimentary rock that will slowly collapse on itself into a dome shape.

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