The nation that Rome conquered across the Mediterranean was Carthage. Rome and Carthage were adversaries in the Mediterranean, Spain, and other areas. There were a total of three wars between them (264–146 BCE). Rome's victory enabled it to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean for a long time. Carthage, on the other hand, was completely obliterated at the end of the conflict.
The first of the three Punic Wars was over control of Sicily. There was fighting in both Sicily and in Africa. Hamilcar Barca, the Carthaginian leader, was a formidable general. Finally, however, Rome's navy won the war, and Carthage sued for peace in 241. The main result was Rome's conquest of Sicily.
Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, led Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE). Hannibal led an army all the way from Spain to Italy. His army was not large, but it included elephants and cavalry. No Roman army was able to defeat Hannibal, and he slaughtered at least 40,000 Romans at the battle of Cannae in 216. But Hannibal was never strong enough to capture Rome, and he was defeated at Zama in 202.
The Third Punic War (149–146 BCE) led to the complete destruction of Carthage. Carthage's territory in North Africa was converted into a Roman province.