Which character in Moby Dick is described with the idea that "The sea had ... drowned the infinite of his soul"?

The character described with the idea that "The sea had ... drowned the infinite of his soul" is Pip. This description is from chapter 93, in which Pip is abandoned in the open ocean during a whale hunt.

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Pip is the character in question. The quotation is from chapter 93, in which Pip, who is substituting in as crew on Stubb's whaleboat, jumps out of the boat when a whale knocks against it and is left behind, alone in the open ocean.

The experience of being abandoned at...

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Pip is the character in question. The quotation is from chapter 93, in which Pip, who is substituting in as crew on Stubb's whaleboat, jumps out of the boat when a whale knocks against it and is left behind, alone in the open ocean.

The experience of being abandoned at sea and then rescued by the "merest chance" traumatizes Pip, whose body seems sound but whose soul has been "drowned." Melville gives Pip's experience a richer symbolic meaning, however. Pip has seen the "strange shapes of the unwarped primal world" and beheld "God's foot upon the treadle of the loom," meaning that his madness is perhaps connected to a higher spiritual awareness. It is as if the transcendent reality of the ocean has replaced the mundane reality of shipboard life; once he has witnessed God at work, "weaving" reality at his loom, other considerations, like the work of butchering a whale, seem unimportant.

Pip becomes "too crazy-witty" for Stubb, who feels some guilt about what happened to him. Pip becomes a bit like the Fool in King Lear, whose nonsensical comments on things like Ahab's doubloon (which he calls "the navel of the ship") at first seem comical but, on further reflection, suggest a deeper understanding of their symbolic significance.

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