Almost all aspects of Reconstruction were a failure. The only thing it really accomplished was to get the Union back together after the Civil War. Let us look at the two main ways in which Reconstruction failed.
First, Reconstruction failed because it did not do very much, if anything, to help African Americans. Reconstruction was, through things like the Freedmen’s Bureau, supposed to help African Americans get on their feet economically. It was, through things like the 14th and 15th Amendments, supposed to make them legally equal to whites. Neither of these things happened. After Reconstruction, blacks were mainly employed in menial positions or were part of the sharecropping system, which worked to keep them impoverished and in the control of rich whites. After Reconstruction, blacks were second class citizens who were denied the right to vote and many other rights. Thus, Reconstruction failed miserably in its attempt to help African Americans.
Second, Reconstruction was supposed to help the economy of the South. Reconstruction was given that name in part because it was supposed to rebuild the South. If the goal of Reconstruction was to make the South’s economy stronger and more diverse, it failed. At the end of Reconstruction, the South was not that much more industrialized than it had been before the war. In addition, the South was still very poor. Reconstruction failed to such a degree that the states of the South are still the poorest in the country today. In short, Reconstruction did not change or improve the Southern economy in any major way.
Since two of the most important goals of Reconstruction were to help African Americans and to improve/rebuild the Southern economy, we can say that Reconstruction failed in two of its most important tasks.