Which are the fields in which Chalcolithic humans attained progress?

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During the Chalcolithic, or "Copper," Age, significant progress was made in the smelting of copper (hence the name given to this historical epoch). Copper was used in the manufacture of weapons, such as spears and swords, and represented a major advance on the much more primitive weapons made from stone, flint, and animal bones used during the previous Neolithic Era.

Copper was mined and manufactured on quite a large scale. We know this because archaeologists have found a number of large copper ingots in a natural state. This indicates, among other things, that copper didn't need to be melted down to make weapons; it could simply be hammered into shape to make axes, weapons, and armor.

Once neglected by historians, the Copper Age has come to be seen by modern-day scholars as a good deal more significant than previously thought. For one thing, Chalcolithic society was remarkably complex, arranged as it was according to a recognizable social hierarchy. Prior to this era, human societies were much more egalitarian, with few if any real distinctions between rich and poor, rulers and ruled. But the Chalcolithic Age ushered in a period of social stratification based on the specialization of labor brought about by the manufacture of copper.

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