Among the various theoretical approaches to explaining human behavior, it is this writer's view that the cognitive-behavioral approach does the best job at accounting for psychopathology. The cognitive-behavioral approach has been developed into an evidence-based therapy known as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, or CBT. CBT is known to be effective for treating a variety of different psychiatric disorders (Chand & Huecker, 2019). A cognitive-behavioral approach to human functioning considers both internal and external experiences. The "cognitive" in this approach focuses on the internal thoughts of the individual, while the "behavioral" in this approach looks at the observable behaviors of the person as well as outside factors that influence that individual's functioning.
A cognitive-behavioral approach to explaining psychopathology can help one to understand anxiety, depression, autism, ADHD, and many more psychiatric conditions. For example, autism may be looked at through a lens of both the internal and external experiences that influence the person's behaviors and life experiences. The internal experiences, also known as private events, are impacted by the external world. Events and stimuli in the environment influence the individual, which then triggers a certain behavior or reaction. Although various disorders may differ in their underlying cause (or possibly have an unknown cause), understanding of any disorder can be achieved through a cognitive-behavioral lens.
This is not to say that other approaches do not have merit. Many approaches to understanding human functioning have excellent ability to contribute to our understanding of the human species. For instance, a sociocultural approach can help us to look at a larger picture when trying to understand psychopathology. In the example of someone with autism, a sociocultural approach could help us to see the influences and perspectives of the society at large and the culture in which that person lives. However, you can still utilize a cognitive-behavioral approach to analyze and provide further understanding of the condition.