Oligodendrocytes are one of a class of cells known as neuroglia, whose function is maintenance and protection of the neurons, or nerve cells. Oligodendrocytes are found in the central nervous system, primarily in the brain but also in smaller numbers in the spinal cord. Oligodendrocytes are small, rounded cells with one or a few processes, or extensions.
There are two main types; one type acts as satellite cells around the neurons of the gray matter which forms the active outer layer of the cerebrum, where they function to help maintain ion balance in the neuron. The other type of oligodendrocyte is usually found in the white matter where it produces myelin, a fatty substance that functions as an insulating covering over the axons of neurons.
Oligodendrocytes arise from stem cells in the central nervous system during fetal development. Malfunctioning of the oligodendrocytes is believed to be a cause of multiple sclerosis, and is suspected in several other brain problems including schizophrenia.
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the end product of a cell lineage which has to undergo a complex and precisely timed program of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and myelination to finally produce the insulating sheath of axons.
They are located within the CNS and function solely within it.
Oligodendrocytes is located in the central nervous system. It is a type of neuroglia (group of cells that support neurons).
Its function is to produce myelin sheaths around CNS nerve fibers.
Oligodendrocytes are types of cells that make up the supportive or glial tissue of the brain.
There are two types of Oligodendrocytes:-
- Intrafasicular cells (found in myelinated tracts)
- Perineuronal Cells (found in the surface of the somata of neurons)