Bandura's cognitive theory suggests that individual genetic endowment is critical in human development and decision making. He attempts to refute Skinner's theory that humans respond only to external reward/punishment systems. Bandura contends that, to the contrary, human cognition evaluates future consequences and results when taking decisions--and this ability to so evaluate is a genetic endowment--which can thereafter be enhanced or otherwise modified by reward and/or punishment.
Bronfenbrenner's human ecological theory holds that human development occurs in context with and under the influence of five subsets of ecological structure. These ecological subsets influence genetic endowment. These subsets are:
- microsystem: immediate environment (e.g., family, schools etc)
- masosystem: this is the system of relationships between microsystems
- exosystem: systems and relationships of them tha are not part of your systems
- macrosystem: the culture with its systems: classes (social and economic), religious association, ethnicity, nation and government etc
- chronosystem: the effect on you of -system over time, like changes to micro- and maso- systems (e.g., schools, neighborhoods) and through transitions, like births, deaths, marriages etc (see NACCE for more detail)