William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England, a town which makes much of its association with the great man. The records in Stratford were very good at the time, so we know that Shakespeare attended grammar school there as a boy. The house in which he was born is known and can be visited. There is also New Place, the final house in which Shakespeare lived with his wife and children. Shakespeare bought this house in 1597 and died in it in 1616.
For much of his life, however, Shakespeare worked and lived in London, making visits back to Stratford to see his family. His living places in London are less precisely known. We can assume that he worked and spent his leisure time in the Bankside area of London, where the Globe Theatre was built. Various records indicate that he lived in St. Helen's Bishopsgate, near Shoreditch, and subsequently in Bankside near the Globe, before moving back to North London to live near Barbican. Most of these residences are known to us because Shakespeare was charged with tax evasion, which is documented, but in 1613, he purchased a house opposite the Globe in Blackfriars, giving us a more respectable document trail for the Bard.
You will see that there is crossover between these lodgings in London and the New Place purchase in Stratford. Shakespeare moved back and forth between the two towns often; we can assume that he lived mainly in London during theater season and in Stratford out of season until he was older, when he began spending more time at the family home.