According to Indiana University, Gothic architecture originated in the North of France. Specifically, this style of architecture began in Saint-Denis, a town to the north of Paris, when the local abbot, Suger, began a renovation of the eastern section of his abbey church. These renovations began in 1140 and, from its inception, it was clear that Suger's style was very different to what had gone before. This has led historians to credit Saint-Denis as being the first Gothic church in existence. (You can use the second reference link provided to see some examples of the Gothic style in France and across Europe.)
Once the renovations at Saint-Denis were complete (by 1144), lots of buildings across France were commissioned in a similar fashion and, soon after, across Medieval Europe.