When scientists take a section of human DNA and insert it into bacterial DNA, what are they trying to find the similarity of? Proteins or RNA?  

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trophyhunter1 | College Teacher | (Level 1) Educator Emeritus

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This is called genetic engineering. The bacteria has a human gene spliced into its genome. This bacteria is a GM or genetically modified organism. The goal is that once it replicates, it will continue to make copies of its bacterial DNA as well as the inserted human DNA. Hopefully, it will also make the gene product, which is a protein as well. This has been done successfully in bacteria which have been engineered to make human growth hormone, a protein that stimulates growth during puberty and it has been done with the human gene for insulin, so that diabetics can have an unlimited supply of this important protein that regulates sugar levels in the body. DNA is the blueprint which is copied by messenger RNA in a process called transcription. It is then translated at a ribosome, into a protein which is the gene product. Therefore, the answer to your question is protein.

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