When and how did India gain independence from the British Empire?

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There had been Indian independence movements going back to the mid-19th Century. Most of these were violent revolts that were brutally represented by the British military. The modern Indian independence movement began in the 1920s under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi believed that independence would best come through a...

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There had been Indian independence movements going back to the mid-19th Century. Most of these were violent revolts that were brutally represented by the British military. The modern Indian independence movement began in the 1920s under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi believed that independence would best come through a non-violent civil rights struggle against Great Britain. This consisted of many acts of civil disobedience, such as refusing to pay British taxes, and peaceful demonstrations to make the independence cause heard.

After World War II, Great Britain found itself in a weakened state. The British had promised to liberate India after the war if Indians aided in the war effort. Calls for Britain to keep their end of the bargain were renewed in the late 1940s. Prime minister Clement Attlee decided to uphold the bargain. India was partitioned into the mostly Muslim Pakistan on August 14, 1947, and the mostly Hindu India received independence from direct British rule the next day. India nominally remained under the sovereignty of the English Crown for the next three years, until the Constitution of 1950 was ratified giving the nation full autonomy.

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