When does Lady Macbeth go mad in Macbeth?

Lady Macbeth doesn't go mad at a specific point in the play Macbeth. Her descent into madness is a long, gradual process that begins after Macbeth takes the throne, builds up after the banquet scene in act 3, scene 4, and eventually culminates in her off-stage suicide.

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Once Macbeth has taken the throne of Scotland from the murdered Duncan, he finds that he can dispense with the services of his ambitious wife. Surplus to requirements, Lady Macbeth no longer knows what to do with herself. Without a political role in the new Scotland she finds herself...

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Once Macbeth has taken the throne of Scotland from the murdered Duncan, he finds that he can dispense with the services of his ambitious wife. Surplus to requirements, Lady Macbeth no longer knows what to do with herself. Without a political role in the new Scotland she finds herself with too much time on her hands—time in which to brood over the dastardly deed for which she, more than anyone else, was responsible.

And over time, this brooding gradually disorders her mind, leading her to experience deep feelings of unease over Duncan's murder that, in turn, lead to her suicide. The first stirrings of these feelings make their appearance in act 3, scene 4, when the ghost of Banquo materializes at the feast.

Only Macbeth can see Banquo's ghost, so when he starts ranting and raving at the apparition it appears that he's going out of his mind. For the first time, Lady Macbeth can see the outward signs of psychological damage to which her husband has been subjected since murdering Duncan.

As we don't see Lady Macbeth again until act 5, scene 1, when she wanders round Dunsinane at night, desperately trying to remove the "damned spot" of blood from her hands, we can reasonably conclude that the sight of her husband's odd behavior at the banquet had such an effect upon her that it precipitated her descent into outright insanity.

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In the text, there is no specific moment in which Lady Macbeth goes mad. However, she is clearly of unsound mind by act 5, scene 1. In this famous sleepwalking scene, Lady Macbeth is haunted by the memory of her crime and is seen trying to wash invisible blood from her hands.

What is interesting about her madness is that it appears to come on gradually. In act 3, scene 2, for example, we see the very beginning of her torment and anxiety in the following quote:

Naught’s had, all’s spent,
Where our desire is got without content.
'Tis safer to be that which we destroy
Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy.

What she's saying here is that killing Duncan wasn't worth it. Although she is queen, she is tormented by feelings of anxiety and remorse. Arguably, this is where her madness begins, with these very early feelings of guilt. Although she is able to keep these feelings under control in public, as we see in the banquet scene, her madness is inescapable by act 5, scene 1.

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Lady Macbeth goes mad some time between the dinner party where Macbeth sees Banquo's ghost, and her sleepwalking scene.  The dinner with all the lords (in act 3, scene 4) is actually the last time that Macbeth and Lady Macbeth appear on stage together, and Lady Macbeth is quite anxious in this scene about her husband's mental state.  She feels that he is acting crazily: he is speaking to Banquo's ghost aloud, in front of all their guests, and it sounds to her as though he is addressing a hallucination of Duncan's ghost.  Macbeth says to the ghost, "Thou canst not say I did it.  Never shake / Thy gory locks at me."  Lady Macbeth fears that he is going to give them away as Duncan's murderers (as she does not know yet that Banquo is dead).  Her anxiety is so immense that she insults him, asking, "Are you a man?"  The implication is that he is not.  She scolds him, trying to get him to be quiet. When the lords start to ask him questions, she insists that they leave immediately.  In an interesting moment of foreshadowing, Lady Macbeth points out that Macbeth has not slept.  

It is ironic that she says this to him because, when we next see her, she has ceased to sleep peacefully too.  Lady Macbeth does not reappear until act 5, scene 1, following the murders of Lady Macduff and her children. In this scene, her servant has called a doctor to observe her strange, nocturnal habits.  At this point, she seems to be hallucinating, imagining that she cannot wash Duncan's blood off her hands, and she cries, "Out, damned spot!  Out, I say!"  She also refers to Macduff's dead wife, asking, "What, will these hands ne'er be clean?"  I interpret this progression to mean that she now knows that her husband has ordered the deaths of an innocent woman and her children.  She has created a monster and Macbeth has gone on to exact greater and crueler violence: first he kills Duncan, then he orders the murders of his best friend and his friend's son, and finally, he kills a good man's family.  When she asks if her hands will ever be "clean" again, the implied answer is no.  Perhaps she has recognized her role in the deaths of the innocents, and it has driven her mad.  At any rate, Lady Macbeth is certainly no longer mentally stable, and, when next we hear of her, she will have taken her own life.

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