When, by whom, and for what purpose was America's first college revived? 

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The operation of William and Mary was disrupted during the Civil War. With the number of young men committing to fight in the War, the campus was not able to continue operation. In closed in 1861 and was not able to resume operations for the duration of the conflict. The university functioned as a command center for the Confederacy and the Union at different points in the war. Under Union occupation, some of the historic buildings were burned and the campus was used as a headquarters. The college was reopened by Benjamin Ewell using his own money in 1869. It closed shortly afterward but was reopened in 1888 by the Commonwealth of Virginia. It was opened as a training center for teachers. It should also be noted that John D. Rockefeller donated large sums of money to repair the campus. Rockefeller was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, which was founded at William and Mary.

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