The concepts vary depending on if you are looking at the micro- or macro level linguistic features. The micro level is analyzing sentence, paragraph and common usage of one language. The macro level is comparing linguistics across a wider variety of languages.
Analyzing the micro level linguistics relies upon several concepts. When analyzing on this level the structure and function of words becomes important, otherwise known as conceptualism. For example, English uses many words to relate different concepts such as to, too, two or know and no.
Another analysis is frequency construct which is the frequency of words and modifiers in the language. Not as common in the English language, but seen in languages such as Spanish where the ending of the word denotes masculine or feminine qualities. This analysis does have a drawback when looking at sentiment, which is better understood through conceptualism.
The final micro examination I'll mention is diction, or the pace of a language. The style of enunciation and phrasing can put value on the linguistic analysis. Diction comes into play when dealing lyrics and speech patterns for transmitting information.
Macro analysis of linguistics is a comparison of the micro level. This cross-linguistic comparison can help researchers view similar linguistic phenomenon across different languages. Vowel and syllable sounds throughout the world can denote interaction on a historical timeline as language evolves generationally.
Geo-spatial analysis of macro linguistics analyzes the likelihood of language contact over time. Isolated languages would assume to arise from isolation during evolvement. However, the rise of a phenomenon among multiple languages without known or suspected interaction may allow researchers to analyze if it arises from so called "human nature" and came about organically.