What's the theme of " Address to the Slaves of the United States of America" by Henry Highland Garnet?
I agree with the previous educator's assertion that resistance is Garnet's main theme.
He uses America's history of slave-holding -- buttressed by "the influence of some false religion" and a sense of irresponsibility -- to argue that black people cannot rely on white Americans to realize the wrongs of this institution and make a change. He argues that slaves have "a moral obligation to God" to lift themselves from ignorance. He directly addresses, not only the abject state in which black people have been kept (e.g., the "prostitution" of black women), but how wrong it is to become complacent with this state of being. He writes that it is not possible to obey God's commandments while living in slavery.
Garnet appears to be using the piousness of slaves -- previously an instrument used to keep them docile -- to encourage their resistance.
He does not specify how that resistance should manifest, but insists that "[slaves] must decide by the circumstances that surround [them], and according to the suggestions of expediency." Interestingly, he uses the examples of slave rebels -- some who successfully committed violence (e.g., Nat Turner, Madison Washington, Joseph Cinque) and those whose plans were revealed prematurely (e.g., Denmark Vesey).
The language he uses to introduce each rebel is important. Turner is "patriotic." Joseph Cinque is an immortal hero. Finally, Madison Washington is described as "that bright star of freedom" who "took his station in the constellation of true heroism." These descriptions counter historical records, which persist, in which these men are described as troublemakers or murderers.
Reminders of their immortality and commitments to the improvement, not only of their stations but, in the case of Turner, the amelioration of his society, are intended to help slaves realize the cost of permanent subservience. Though the fear of retributive violence was always near, only resistance could bring it to a permanent end.
In my opinion, the major theme of this speech is that slaves need to rebel against the system of slavery. Garnet did not necessarily mean that slaves should actually rebel violently, but he did advocate that they should resist their oppressors.
The point here is that Garnet is not telling slaves to make the best of their situation. He is also not telling them to wait until someone else comes to rescue them from slavery. In other words, he is not telling them to hope for abolitionists to get them freed. He is telling them to take it upon themselves to gain their freedom.
So I think what is distinctive about this speech, its main theme, is the idea that slaves themselves must get up and do something to free themselves.
Here is a quote to support this:
Let your motto be resistance! resistance! RESISTANCE! No oppressed people have ever secured their liberty without resistance.